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Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries

Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High Income Countries

Author : National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2011-07-27
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309186407

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Book Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries Description/Summary:

During the last 25 years, life expectancy at age 50 in the United States has been rising, but at a slower pace than in many other high-income countries, such as Japan and Australia. This difference is particularly notable given that the United States spends more on health care than any other nation. Concerned about this divergence, the National Institute on Aging asked the National Research Council to examine evidence on its possible causes. According to Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries, the nation's history of heavy smoking is a major reason why lifespans in the United States fall short of those in many other high-income nations. Evidence suggests that current obesity levels play a substantial part as well. The book reports that lack of universal access to health care in the U.S. also has increased mortality and reduced life expectancy, though this is a less significant factor for those over age 65 because of Medicare access. For the main causes of death at older ages -- cancer and cardiovascular disease -- available indicators do not suggest that the U.S. health care system is failing to prevent deaths that would be averted elsewhere. In fact, cancer detection and survival appear to be better in the U.S. than in most other high-income nations, and survival rates following a heart attack also are favorable. Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries identifies many gaps in research. For instance, while lung cancer deaths are a reliable marker of the damage from smoking, no clear-cut marker exists for obesity, physical inactivity, social integration, or other risks considered in this book. Moreover, evaluation of these risk factors is based on observational studies, which -- unlike randomized controlled trials -- are subject to many biases.

International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages

International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages

Author : National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2011-02-27
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309157339

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Book International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages Description/Summary:

In 1950 men and women in the United States had a combined life expectancy of 68.9 years, the 12th highest life expectancy at birth in the world. Today, life expectancy is up to 79.2 years, yet the country is now 28th on the list, behind the United Kingdom, Korea, Canada, and France, among others. The United States does have higher rates of infant mortality and violent deaths than in other developed countries, but these factors do not fully account for the country's relatively poor ranking in life expectancy. International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources examines patterns in international differences in life expectancy above age 50 and assesses the evidence and arguments that have been advanced to explain the poor position of the United States relative to other countries. The papers in this deeply researched volume identify gaps in measurement, data, theory, and research design and pinpoint areas for future high-priority research in this area. In addition to examining the differences in mortality around the world, the papers in International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages look at health factors and life-style choices commonly believed to contribute to the observed international differences in life expectancy. They also identify strategic opportunities for health-related interventions. This book offers a wide variety of disciplinary and scholarly perspectives to the study of mortality, and it offers in-depth analyses that can serve health professionals, policy makers, statisticians, and researchers.

U.S. Health in International Perspective

U S  Health in International Perspective

Author : National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-04-12
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309264143

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Book U.S. Health in International Perspective Description/Summary:

The United States is among the wealthiest nations in the world, but it is far from the healthiest. Although life expectancy and survival rates in the United States have improved dramatically over the past century, Americans live shorter lives and experience more injuries and illnesses than people in other high-income countries. The U.S. health disadvantage cannot be attributed solely to the adverse health status of racial or ethnic minorities or poor people: even highly advantaged Americans are in worse health than their counterparts in other, "peer" countries. In light of the new and growing evidence about the U.S. health disadvantage, the National Institutes of Health asked the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to convene a panel of experts to study the issue. The Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries examined whether the U.S. health disadvantage exists across the life span, considered potential explanations, and assessed the larger implications of the findings. U.S. Health in International Perspective presents detailed evidence on the issue, explores the possible explanations for the shorter and less healthy lives of Americans than those of people in comparable countries, and recommends actions by both government and nongovernment agencies and organizations to address the U.S. health disadvantage.

Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death

Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death

Author : National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Care Services,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2015-02-24
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309367097

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Book Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death Description/Summary:

Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death is the summary of two workshops conducted by The Committee on Population of the National Research Council at the National Academies to address the data sources, science and future research needs to understand the causes of premature mortality in the United States. The workshops reviewed previous work in the field in light of new data generated as part of the work of the NRC Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries (NRC, 2011) and the NRC/IOM Panel on Understanding Cross-National Differences Among High-Income Countries (NRC/IOM, 2013). The workshop presentations considered the state of the science of measuring the determinants of the causes of premature death, assessed the availability and quality of data sources, and charted future courses of action to improve the understanding of the causes of premature death. Presenters shared their approaches to and results of measuring premature mortality and specific risk factors, with a particular focus on those factors most amenable to improvement through public health policy. This report summarizes the presentations and discussion of both workshops.

Future Directions for the Demography of Aging

Future Directions for the Demography of Aging

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2018-07-21
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309474108

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Book Future Directions for the Demography of Aging Description/Summary:

Almost 25 years have passed since the Demography of Aging (1994) was published by the National Research Council. Future Directions for the Demography of Aging is, in many ways, the successor to that original volume. The Division of Behavioral and Social Research at the National Institute on Aging (NIA) asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to produce an authoritative guide to new directions in demography of aging. The papers published in this report were originally presented and discussed at a public workshop held in Washington, D.C., August 17-18, 2017. The workshop discussion made evident that major new advances had been made in the last two decades, but also that new trends and research directions have emerged that call for innovative conceptual, design, and measurement approaches. The report reviews these recent trends and also discusses future directions for research on a range of topics that are central to current research in the demography of aging. Looking back over the past two decades of demography of aging research shows remarkable advances in our understanding of the health and well-being of the older population. Equally exciting is that this report sets the stage for the next two decades of innovative researchâ€"a period of rapid growth in the older American population.

Rising Life Expectancy

Rising Life Expectancy

Author : James C. Riley
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2001-06-04
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN : 0521002818

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Book Rising Life Expectancy Description/Summary:

This book traces the global history of rising life expectancy in the last 200 years.

An Aging World

An Aging World

Author : Kevin G. Kinsella,Victoria Averil Velkoff
Publisher : Bureau of Census
Release : 2001
Category : Age distribution (Demography)
ISBN : MINN:31951D02013769Q

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Book An Aging World Description/Summary:

Provides statistical information on the worldwide population of people 65 years old or older.

World Social Report 2020

World Social Report 2020

Author : Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Publisher : United Nations
Release : 2020-02-14
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9789210043670

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Book World Social Report 2020 Description/Summary:

This report examines the links between inequality and other major global trends (or megatrends), with a focus on technological change, climate change, urbanization and international migration. The analysis pays particular attention to poverty and labour market trends, as they mediate the distributional impacts of the major trends selected. It also provides policy recommendations to manage these megatrends in an equitable manner and considers the policy implications, so as to reduce inequalities and support their implementation.

Demography of Aging

Demography of Aging

Author : National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1994-02-01
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309050852

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Book Demography of Aging Description/Summary:

As the United States and the rest of the world face the unprecedented challenge of aging populations, this volume draws together for the first time state-of-the-art work from the emerging field of the demography of aging. The nine chapters, written by experts from a variety of disciplines, highlight data sources and research approaches, results, and proposed strategies on a topic with major policy implications for labor forces, economic well-being, health care, and the need for social and family supports.

Global Productivity

Global Productivity

Author : Alistair Dieppe
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2021-06-09
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN : 9781464816093

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Book Global Productivity Description/Summary:

The COVID-19 pandemic struck the global economy after a decade that featured a broad-based slowdown in productivity growth. Global Productivity: Trends, Drivers, and Policies presents the first comprehensive analysis of the evolution and drivers of productivity growth, examines the effects of COVID-19 on productivity, and discusses a wide range of policies needed to rekindle productivity growth. The book also provides a far-reaching data set of multiple measures of productivity for up to 164 advanced economies and emerging market and developing economies, and it introduces a new sectoral database of productivity. The World Bank has created an extraordinary book on productivity, covering a large group of countries and using a wide variety of data sources. There is an emphasis on emerging and developing economies, whereas the prior literature has concentrated on developed economies. The book seeks to understand growth patterns and quantify the role of (among other things) the reallocation of factors, technological change, and the impact of natural disasters, including the COVID-19 pandemic. This book is must-reading for specialists in emerging economies but also provides deep insights for anyone interested in economic growth and productivity. Martin Neil Baily Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution Former Chair, U.S. President’s Council of Economic Advisers This is an important book at a critical time. As the book notes, global productivity growth had already been slowing prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and collapses with the pandemic. If we want an effective recovery, we have to understand what was driving these long-run trends. The book presents a novel global approach to examining the levels, growth rates, and drivers of productivity growth. For anyone wanting to understand or influence productivity growth, this is an essential read. Nicholas Bloom William D. Eberle Professor of Economics, Stanford University The COVID-19 pandemic hit a global economy that was already struggling with an adverse pre-existing condition—slow productivity growth. This extraordinarily valuable and timely book brings considerable new evidence that shows the broad-based, long-standing nature of the slowdown. It is comprehensive, with an exceptional focus on emerging market and developing economies. Importantly, it shows how severe disasters (of which COVID-19 is just the latest) typically harm productivity. There are no silver bullets, but the book suggests sensible strategies to improve growth prospects. John Fernald Schroders Chaired Professor of European Competitiveness and Reform and Professor of Economics, INSEAD

Technically Speaking

Technically Speaking

Author : National Research Council,National Academy of Engineering,Committee on Technological Literacy
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2002-04-13
Category : Medical
ISBN : 9780309082624

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Book Technically Speaking Description/Summary:

Cell phones . . . airbags . . . genetically modified food . . . the Internet. These are all emblems of modern life. You might ask what we would do without them. But an even more interesting question might be what would we do if we had to actually explain how they worked? The United States is riding a whirlwind of technological change. To be sure, there have been periods, such as the late 1800s, when new inventions appeared in society at a comparable rate. But the pace of change today, and its social, economic, and other impacts, are as significant and far reaching as at any other time in history. And it seems that the faster we embrace new technologies, the less we’re able to understand them. What is the long-term effect of this galloping technological revolution? In today’s new world, it is nothing less than a matter of responsible citizenship to grasp the nature and implications of technology. Technically Speaking provides a blueprint for bringing us all up to speed on the role of technology in our society, including understanding such distinctions as technology versus science and technological literacy versus technical competence. It clearly and decisively explains what it means to be a technologically-literate citizen. The book goes on to explore the context of technological literacyâ€"the social, historical, political, and educational environments. This readable overview highlights specific issues of concern: the state of technological studies in K-12 schools, the reach of the Internet into our homes and lives, and the crucial role of technology in today’s economy and workforce. Three case studies of current issuesâ€"car airbags, genetically modified foods, and the California energy crisisâ€"illustrate why ordinary citizens need to understand technology to make responsible decisions. This fascinating book from the National Academy of Engineering is enjoyable to read and filled with contemporary examples. It will be important to anyone interested in understanding how the world around them works.

Communities in Action

Communities in Action

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2017-04-27
Category : Medical
ISBN : 9780309452960

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Book Communities in Action Description/Summary:

In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual's health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.

Population Health: Behavioral and Social Science Insights

Population Health  Behavioral and Social Science Insights

Author : Robert M. Kaplan,Michael L. Spittel,Daryn H. David
Publisher : Government Printing Office
Release : 2015-07-24
Category : Medical
ISBN : 9781587634451

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Book Population Health: Behavioral and Social Science Insights Description/Summary:

The purpose of this book is to gain a better understanding of the multitude of factors that determine longer life and improved quality of life in the years a person is alive. While the emphasis is primarily on the social and behavioral determinants that have an effect on the health and well-being of individuals, this publication also addresses quality of life factors and determinants more broadly. Each chapter in this book considers an area of investigation and ends with suggestions for future research and implications of current research for policy and practice. The introductory chapter summarizes the state of Americans’ health and well-being in comparison to our international peers and presents background information concerning the limitations of current approaches to improving health and well-being. Following the introduction, there are 21 chapters that examine the effects of various behavioral risk factors on population health, identify trends in life expectancy and quality of life, and suggest avenues for research in the behavioral and social science arenas to address problems affecting the U.S. population and populations in other developed and developing countries around the world. Undergraduate and graduate students pursuing coursework in health statistics, health population demographics, behavioral and social science, and heatlh policy may be interested in this content. Additionally, policymakers, legislators, heatlh educators, and scientific organizations around the world may also have an interest in this resource.

Economic, Social and Demographic Thought in the XIXth Century

Economic  Social and Demographic Thought in the XIXth Century

Author : Yves Charbit
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-03-31
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781402099601

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Book Economic, Social and Demographic Thought in the XIXth Century Description/Summary:

According to current understanding, Malthus was hostile to an excess of population because it caused social sufferings, while Marx was favourable to demographic growth in so far as a large proletariat was a factor aggravating the contradictions of capitalism. This is unfortunately an oversimplification. Both raised the same crucial question: when considered as an economic variable, how does population fit into the analysis of economic growth? Even though they started from the same analytical standpoint, Marx established a very different diagnosis from that of Malthus and built a social doctrine no less divergent. The book also discusses the theoretical and doctrinal contribution of the liberal economists, writing at the onset of the industrial revolution in France (1840-1870), and those of their contemporary, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, who shared with Marx the denunciation of the capitalist system. By paying careful attention to the social, economic, and political context, this book goes beyond the shortcomings of the classification between pro- and anti-populationism. It sheds new light over nineteenth century controversies over population in France, a case study for Europe.

The Great Escape

The Great Escape

Author : Angus Deaton
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2015-05-26
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN : 9780691165622

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Book The Great Escape Description/Summary:

Asserts that 250 years ago, some parts of the world began to experience sustained progress, opening up gaps and setting the stage for today's hugely unequal world and examines the United States, a nation that has prospered but is today experiencing slower growth and increasing inequality.

The End of Poverty

The End of Poverty

Author : Jeffrey D. Sachs
Publisher : Penguin
Release : 2006-02-28
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN : 9781101643280

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Book The End of Poverty Description/Summary:

"Book and man are brilliant, passionate, optimistic and impatient . . . Outstanding." —The Economist The landmark exploration of economic prosperity and how the world can escape from extreme poverty for the world's poorest citizens, from one of the world's most renowned economists Hailed by Time as one of the world's hundred most influential people, Jeffrey D. Sachs is renowned for his work around the globe advising economies in crisis. Now a classic of its genre, The End of Poverty distills more than thirty years of experience to offer a uniquely informed vision of the steps that can transform impoverished countries into prosperous ones. Marrying vivid storytelling with rigorous analysis, Sachs lays out a clear conceptual map of the world economy. Explaining his own work in Bolivia, Russia, India, China, and Africa, he offers an integrated set of solutions to the interwoven economic, political, environmental, and social problems that challenge the world's poorest countries. Ten years after its initial publication, The End of Poverty remains an indispensible and influential work. In this 10th anniversary edition, Sachs presents an extensive new foreword assessing the progress of the past decade, the work that remains to be done, and how each of us can help. He also looks ahead across the next fifteen years to 2030, the United Nations' target date for ending extreme poverty, offering new insights and recommendations.

Physioeconomics

Physioeconomics

Author : Philip M. Parker
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2000
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN : 026216194X

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Book Physioeconomics Description/Summary:

He presents evidence that long-run growth can be attributed to variances in hypothalmic activity."--BOOK JACKET.

Visualizing Mortality Dynamics in the Lexis Diagram

Visualizing Mortality Dynamics in the Lexis Diagram

Author : Kenneth Land,James W Vaupel,Roland Rau
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-10-08
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 1013269039

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Book Visualizing Mortality Dynamics in the Lexis Diagram Description/Summary:

The goal of this book is simple: We would like to show how mortality dynamics can be visualized in the so-called Lexis diagram. To appeal to as many potential readers as possible, we do not require any specialist knowledge. This approach may be disappointing: Demographers may have liked more information about the mathematical underpinnings of population dynamics on the Lexis surface as demonstrated, for instance, by Arthur and Vaupel in 1984. Statisticians would have probably preferred more information about the underlying smoothing methods that were used. Epidemiologists likewise might miss discussions about the etiology of diseases. Sociologists would have probably expected that our results were more embedded into theoretical frameworks... This work was published by Saint Philip Street Press pursuant to a Creative Commons license permitting commercial use. All rights not granted by the work's license are retained by the author or authors.

Beyond Engineering

Beyond Engineering

Author : Robert Pool
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 1997-07-17
Category : Technology & Engineering
ISBN : 9780190283070

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Book Beyond Engineering Description/Summary:

We have long recognized technology as a driving force behind much historical and cultural change. The invention of the printing press initiated the Reformation. The development of the compass ushered in the Age of Exploration and the discovery of the New World. The cotton gin created the conditions that led to the Civil War. Now, in Beyond Engineering, science writer Robert Pool turns the question around to examine how society shapes technology. Drawing on such disparate fields as history, economics, risk analysis, management science, sociology, and psychology, Pool illuminates the complex, often fascinating interplay between machines and society, in a book that will revolutionize how we think about technology. We tend to think that reason guides technological development, that engineering expertise alone determines the final form an invention takes. But if you look closely enough at the history of any invention, says Pool, you will find that factors unrelated to engineering seem to have an almost equal impact. In his wide-ranging volume, he traces developments in nuclear energy, automobiles, light bulbs, commercial electricity, and personal computers, to reveal that the ultimate shape of a technology often has as much to do with outside and unforeseen forces. For instance, Pool explores the reasons why steam-powered cars lost out to internal combustion engines. He shows that the Stanley Steamer was in many ways superior to the Model T--it set a land speed record in 1906 of more than 127 miles per hour, it had no transmission (and no transmission headaches), and it was simpler (one Stanley engine had only twenty-two moving parts) and quieter than a gas engine--but the steamers were killed off by factors that had little or nothing to do with their engineering merits, including the Stanley twins' lack of business acumen and an outbreak of hoof-and-mouth disease. Pool illuminates other aspects of technology as well. He traces how seemingly minor decisions made early along the path of development can have profound consequences further down the road, and perhaps most important, he argues that with the increasing complexity of our technological advances--from nuclear reactors to genetic engineering--the number of things that can go wrong multiplies, making it increasingly difficult to engineer risk out of the equation. Citing such catastrophes as Bhopal, Three Mile Island, the Exxon Valdez, the Challenger, and Chernobyl, he argues that is it time to rethink our approach to technology. The days are gone when machines were solely a product of larger-than-life inventors and hard-working engineers. Increasingly, technology will be a joint effort, with its design shaped not only by engineers and executives but also psychologists, political scientists, management theorists, risk specialists, regulators and courts, and the general public. Whether discussing bovine growth hormone, molten-salt reactors, or baboon-to-human transplants, Beyond Engineering is an engaging look at modern technology and an illuminating account of how technology and the modern world shape each other.

Intelligence Analysis for Tomorrow

Intelligence Analysis for Tomorrow

Author : National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Committee on Behavioral and Social Science Research to Improve Intelligence Analysis for National Security
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2011-04-08
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309163422

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Book Intelligence Analysis for Tomorrow Description/Summary:

The intelligence community (IC) plays an essential role in the national security of the United States. Decision makers rely on IC analyses and predictions to reduce uncertainty and to provide warnings about everything from international diplomatic relations to overseas conflicts. In today's complex and rapidly changing world, it is more important than ever that analytic products be accurate and timely. Recognizing that need, the IC has been actively seeking ways to improve its performance and expand its capabilities. In 2008, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) asked the National Research Council (NRC) to establish a committee to synthesize and assess evidence from the behavioral and social sciences relevant to analytic methods and their potential application for the U.S. intelligence community. In Intelligence Analysis for Tomorrow: Advances from the Behavioral and Social Sciences, the NRC offers the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) recommendations to address many of the IC's challenges. Intelligence Analysis for Tomorrow asserts that one of the most important things that the IC can learn from the behavioral and social sciences is how to characterize and evaluate its analytic assumptions, methods, technologies, and management practices. Behavioral and social scientific knowledge can help the IC to understand and improve all phases of the analytic cycle: how to recruit, select, train, and motivate analysts; how to master and deploy the most suitable analytic methods; how to organize the day-to-day work of analysts, as individuals and teams; and how to communicate with its customers. The report makes five broad recommendations which offer practical ways to apply the behavioral and social sciences, which will bring the IC substantial immediate and longer-term benefits with modest costs and minimal disruption.