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Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death

Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death

Author : National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Care Services,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2015-02-24
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309367097

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Book Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death Description/Summary:

Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death is the summary of two workshops conducted by The Committee on Population of the National Research Council at the National Academies to address the data sources, science and future research needs to understand the causes of premature mortality in the United States. The workshops reviewed previous work in the field in light of new data generated as part of the work of the NRC Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries (NRC, 2011) and the NRC/IOM Panel on Understanding Cross-National Differences Among High-Income Countries (NRC/IOM, 2013). The workshop presentations considered the state of the science of measuring the determinants of the causes of premature death, assessed the availability and quality of data sources, and charted future courses of action to improve the understanding of the causes of premature death. Presenters shared their approaches to and results of measuring premature mortality and specific risk factors, with a particular focus on those factors most amenable to improvement through public health policy. This report summarizes the presentations and discussion of both workshops.

The Global Burden of Disease

The Global Burden of Disease

Author : Harvard School of Public Health,World Health Organization,World Bank
Publisher : Harvard Sch of Public Health
Release : 1996
Category : Health & Fitness
ISBN : UCSC:32106013120412

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Book The Global Burden of Disease Description/Summary:

The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) provides systematic epidemiological estimates for an unprecedented 150 major health conditions. The GBD provides indispensable global and regional data for health planning, research, and education.

Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries

Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High Income Countries

Author : National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2011-07-27
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309186407

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Book Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries Description/Summary:

During the last 25 years, life expectancy at age 50 in the United States has been rising, but at a slower pace than in many other high-income countries, such as Japan and Australia. This difference is particularly notable given that the United States spends more on health care than any other nation. Concerned about this divergence, the National Institute on Aging asked the National Research Council to examine evidence on its possible causes. According to Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries, the nation's history of heavy smoking is a major reason why lifespans in the United States fall short of those in many other high-income nations. Evidence suggests that current obesity levels play a substantial part as well. The book reports that lack of universal access to health care in the U.S. also has increased mortality and reduced life expectancy, though this is a less significant factor for those over age 65 because of Medicare access. For the main causes of death at older ages -- cancer and cardiovascular disease -- available indicators do not suggest that the U.S. health care system is failing to prevent deaths that would be averted elsewhere. In fact, cancer detection and survival appear to be better in the U.S. than in most other high-income nations, and survival rates following a heart attack also are favorable. Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-Income Countries identifies many gaps in research. For instance, while lung cancer deaths are a reliable marker of the damage from smoking, no clear-cut marker exists for obesity, physical inactivity, social integration, or other risks considered in this book. Moreover, evaluation of these risk factors is based on observational studies, which -- unlike randomized controlled trials -- are subject to many biases.

Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution

Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution

Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction Benefits from Decreasing Tropospheric Ozone Exposure
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2008-07-21
Category : Nature
ISBN : 9780309177856

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Book Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution Description/Summary:

In light of recent evidence on the relationship of ozone to mortality and questions about its implications for benefit analysis, the Environmental Protection Agency asked the National Research Council to establish a committee of experts to evaluate independently the contributions of recent epidemiologic studies to understanding the size of the ozone-mortality effect in the context of benefit analysis. The committee was also asked to assess methods for estimating how much a reduction in short-term exposure to ozone would reduce premature deaths, to assess methods for estimating associated increases in life expectancy, and to assess methods for estimating the monetary value of the reduced risk of premature death and increased life expectancy in the context of health-benefits analysis. Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution details the committee's findings and posits several recommendations to address these issues.

U.S. Health in International Perspective

U S  Health in International Perspective

Author : National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-04-12
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309264143

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Book U.S. Health in International Perspective Description/Summary:

The United States is among the wealthiest nations in the world, but it is far from the healthiest. Although life expectancy and survival rates in the United States have improved dramatically over the past century, Americans live shorter lives and experience more injuries and illnesses than people in other high-income countries. The U.S. health disadvantage cannot be attributed solely to the adverse health status of racial or ethnic minorities or poor people: even highly advantaged Americans are in worse health than their counterparts in other, "peer" countries. In light of the new and growing evidence about the U.S. health disadvantage, the National Institutes of Health asked the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to convene a panel of experts to study the issue. The Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries examined whether the U.S. health disadvantage exists across the life span, considered potential explanations, and assessed the larger implications of the findings. U.S. Health in International Perspective presents detailed evidence on the issue, explores the possible explanations for the shorter and less healthy lives of Americans than those of people in comparable countries, and recommends actions by both government and nongovernment agencies and organizations to address the U.S. health disadvantage.

Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors

Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors

Author : Alan D. Lopez
Publisher : World Bank Publications
Release : 2006-04-02
Category : Medical
ISBN : 9780821362631

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Book Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors Description/Summary:

Strategic health planning, the cornerstone of initiatives designed to achieve health improvement goals around the world, requires an understanding of the comparative burden of diseases and injuries, their corresponding risk factors and the likely effects of invervention options. The Global Burden of Disease framework, originally published in 1990, has been widely adopted as the preferred method for health accounting and has become the standard to guide the setting of health research priorities. This publication sets out an updated assessment of the situation, with an analysis of trends observed since 1990 and a chapter on the sensitivity of GBD estimates to various sources of uncertainty in methods and data.

Estimating the Contributions of Lifestyle-Related Factors to Preventable Death

Estimating the Contributions of Lifestyle Related Factors to Preventable Death

Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2005-06-02
Category : Medical
ISBN : 0309181798

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Book Estimating the Contributions of Lifestyle-Related Factors to Preventable Death Description/Summary:

This report is the summary of a workshop held by The Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Science December 13-14, 2004 to estimate the contributions of lifestyle-related factors to preventable death. The summary of this workshop includes presentations from experts in statistical design, epidemiology, quality-of-life measures, communication, and public policy and discussions among the participants. Panels of experts addressed the following topics: methodological issues when estimating the public health burden of lifestyle factors; estimating "attributable risk" in practice; alternative ways of measuring the health burden; and public policy issues.

International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages

International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages

Author : National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Understanding Divergent Trends in Longevity in High-Income Countries
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2011-02-27
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309157339

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Book International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages Description/Summary:

In 1950 men and women in the United States had a combined life expectancy of 68.9 years, the 12th highest life expectancy at birth in the world. Today, life expectancy is up to 79.2 years, yet the country is now 28th on the list, behind the United Kingdom, Korea, Canada, and France, among others. The United States does have higher rates of infant mortality and violent deaths than in other developed countries, but these factors do not fully account for the country's relatively poor ranking in life expectancy. International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages: Dimensions and Sources examines patterns in international differences in life expectancy above age 50 and assesses the evidence and arguments that have been advanced to explain the poor position of the United States relative to other countries. The papers in this deeply researched volume identify gaps in measurement, data, theory, and research design and pinpoint areas for future high-priority research in this area. In addition to examining the differences in mortality around the world, the papers in International Differences in Mortality at Older Ages look at health factors and life-style choices commonly believed to contribute to the observed international differences in life expectancy. They also identify strategic opportunities for health-related interventions. This book offers a wide variety of disciplinary and scholarly perspectives to the study of mortality, and it offers in-depth analyses that can serve health professionals, policy makers, statisticians, and researchers.

Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults

Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on the Health and Medical Dimensions of Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2020-05-14
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780309671033

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Book Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults Description/Summary:

Social isolation and loneliness are serious yet underappreciated public health risks that affect a significant portion of the older adult population. Approximately one-quarter of community-dwelling Americans aged 65 and older are considered to be socially isolated, and a significant proportion of adults in the United States report feeling lonely. People who are 50 years of age or older are more likely to experience many of the risk factors that can cause or exacerbate social isolation or loneliness, such as living alone, the loss of family or friends, chronic illness, and sensory impairments. Over a life course, social isolation and loneliness may be episodic or chronic, depending upon an individual's circumstances and perceptions. A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that social isolation presents a major risk for premature mortality, comparable to other risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, or obesity. As older adults are particularly high-volume and high-frequency users of the health care system, there is an opportunity for health care professionals to identify, prevent, and mitigate the adverse health impacts of social isolation and loneliness in older adults. Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults summarizes the evidence base and explores how social isolation and loneliness affect health and quality of life in adults aged 50 and older, particularly among low income, underserved, and vulnerable populations. This report makes recommendations specifically for clinical settings of health care to identify those who suffer the resultant negative health impacts of social isolation and loneliness and target interventions to improve their social conditions. Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older Adults considers clinical tools and methodologies, better education and training for the health care workforce, and dissemination and implementation that will be important for translating research into practice, especially as the evidence base for effective interventions continues to flourish.

Preterm Birth

Preterm Birth

Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Understanding Premature Birth and Assuring Healthy Outcomes
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2007-05-23
Category : Medical
ISBN : 9780309101592

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Book Preterm Birth Description/Summary:

The increasing prevalence of preterm birth in the United States is a complex public health problem that requires multifaceted solutions. Preterm birth is a cluster of problems with a set of overlapping factors of influence. Its causes may include individual-level behavioral and psychosocial factors, sociodemographic and neighborhood characteristics, environmental exposure, medical conditions, infertility treatments, and biological factors. Many of these factors co-occur, particularly in those who are socioeconomically disadvantaged or who are members of racial and ethnic minority groups. While advances in perinatal and neonatal care have improved survival for preterm infants, those infants who do survive have a greater risk than infants born at term for developmental disabilities, health problems, and poor growth. The birth of a preterm infant can also bring considerable emotional and economic costs to families and have implications for public-sector services, such as health insurance, educational, and other social support systems. Preterm Birth assesses the problem with respect to both its causes and outcomes. This book addresses the need for research involving clinical, basic, behavioral, and social science disciplines. By defining and addressing the health and economic consequences of premature birth, this book will be of particular interest to health care professionals, public health officials, policy makers, professional associations and clinical, basic, behavioral, and social science researchers.

Premature Death in the New Independent States

Premature Death in the New Independent States

Author : Costello CA Bobadilla JL (Mitchell F, editors),National Research Council,National Research Council (US).,José Luis Bobadilla,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Christine A. Costello,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Faith Mitchell,National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Population,Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Commission,Population Committee,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education Staff,National Research Council (U.S) Staff
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1997
Category : Medical
ISBN : NAP:02701

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Book Premature Death in the New Independent States Description/Summary:

This volume includes an overview and revised versions of 13 of the papers that were presented; the workshop agendas are presented as appendices. The volume is organized in two parts. The first deals with the magnitude, trends, and causes of premature death, while the second addresses the proximate determinants of the diseases and injuries that cause the greatest number of premature deaths and measures for their reduction."

The Global Burden of Disease

The Global Burden of Disease

Author : Colin Mathers,World Health Organization
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2008
Category : Medical
ISBN : 9789241563710

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Book The Global Burden of Disease Description/Summary:

The global burden of disease: 2004 update is a comprehensive assessment of the health of the world's population. It provides detailed global and regional estimates of premature mortality, disability and loss of health for 135 causes by age and sex, drawing on extensive WHO databases and on information provided by Member States.--Publisher description.

Summary Measures of Population Health

Summary Measures of Population Health

Author : Organisation mondiale de la santé,World Health Organization,A. D. Lopez
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2002
Category : Medical
ISBN : 9241545518

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Book Summary Measures of Population Health Description/Summary:

As life expectancy rates continue to increase in many countries around the world, comparative health assessments based on mortality rates alone give an increasingly inadequate picture of public health. This publication addresses a wide range of key issues regarding the measurement of population health using comprehensive indices which combine data on mortality and ill-health. It considers the various uses of such summary measures, as well as an appropriate measurement framework and specific ethical and social value choices involved. The contributors to this book include leading experts in epidemiological methods, ethics, health economics, health status measurement and the valuation of health states.

Physical Activity and Cancer

Physical Activity and Cancer

Author : Kerry S. Courneya,Christine M. Friedenreich
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-11-26
Category : Medical
ISBN : 9783642042317

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Book Physical Activity and Cancer Description/Summary:

This book explores in depth the relation between physical activity and cancer control, including primary prevention, coping with treatments, recovery after treatments, long-term survivorship, secondary prevention, and survival. The first part of the book presents the most recent research on the impact of physical activity in preventing a range of cancers. In the second part, the association between physical activity and cancer survivorship is addressed. The effects of physical activity on supportive care endpoints (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, physical functioning) and disease endpoints (e.g., biomarkers, recurrence, survival) are carefully analyzed. In addition, the determinants of physical activity in cancer survivors are discussed, and behavior change strategies for increasing physical activity in cancer survivors are appraised. The final part of the book is devoted to special topics, including the relation of physical activity to pediatric cancer survivorship and to palliative cancer care.

Deaths of Despair and the Future of Capitalism

Deaths of Despair and the Future of Capitalism

Author : Anne Case,Angus Deaton
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2021-03-02
Category : Business & Economics
ISBN : 9780691217062

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Book Deaths of Despair and the Future of Capitalism Description/Summary:

A New York Times Bestseller A Wall Street Journal Bestseller A New York Times Notable Book of 2020 A New York Times Book Review Editors’ Choice Shortlisted for the Financial Times and McKinsey Business Book of the Year A New Statesman Book to Read From economist Anne Case and Nobel Prize winner Angus Deaton, a groundbreaking account of how the flaws in capitalism are fatal for America's working class Deaths of despair from suicide, drug overdose, and alcoholism are rising dramatically in the United States, claiming hundreds of thousands of American lives. Anne Case and Angus Deaton explain the overwhelming surge in these deaths and shed light on the social and economic forces that are making life harder for the working class. As the college educated become healthier and wealthier, adults without a degree are literally dying from pain and despair. Case and Deaton tie the crisis to the weakening position of labor, the growing power of corporations, and a rapacious health-care sector that redistributes working-class wages into the pockets of the wealthy. This critically important book paints a troubling portrait of the American dream in decline, and provides solutions that can rein in capitalism's excesses and make it work for everyone.

Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2014

Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2014

Author : World Health Organization
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015-03-31
Category : Medical
ISBN : 9241564857

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Book Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2014 Description/Summary:

This global status report on prevention and control of NCDs (2014), is framed around the nine voluntary global targets. The report provides data on the current situation, identifying bottlenecks as well as opportunities and priority actions for attaining the targets. The 2010 baseline estimates on NCD mortality and risk factors are provided so that countries can report on progress, starting in 2015. In addition, the report also provides the latest available estimates on NCD mortality (2012) and risk factors, 2010-2012. All ministries of health need to set national NCD targets and lead the development and implementation of policies and interventions to attain them. There is no single pathway to attain NCD targets that fits all countries, as they are at different points in their progress in the prevention and control of NCDs and at different levels of socioeconomic development. However all countries can benefit from the comprehensive response to attaining the voluntary global targets presented in this report.--Publisher description.

The Cancer Atlas

The Cancer Atlas

Author : Ahmedin Jemal
Publisher : Amer Cancer Society
Release : 2015-03
Category : Health & Fitness
ISBN : 1604432284

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Book The Cancer Atlas Description/Summary:

This atlas illustrates the latest available data on the cancer epidemic, showing causes, stages of development, and prevalence rates of different types of cancers by gender, income group, and region. It also examines the cost of the disease, both in terms of health care and commercial interests, and the steps being taken to curb the epidemic, from research and screening to cancer management programs and health education.

Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 6)

Disease Control Priorities  Third Edition  Volume 6

Author : Prabhat Jha
Publisher : Disease Control Priorities
Release : 2017-12-04
Category : Medical
ISBN : 1464805261

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Book Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 6) Description/Summary:

Infectious diseases are the leading cause of death globally, particularly among children and young adults. The spread of new pathogens and the threat of antimicrobial resistance pose particular challenges in combating these diseases. Major Infectious Diseases identifies feasible, cost-effective packages of interventions and strategies across delivery platforms to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS, other sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, malaria, adult febrile illness, viral hepatitis, and neglected tropical diseases. The volume emphasizes the need to effectively address emerging antimicrobial resistance, strengthen health systems, and increase access to care. The attainable goals are to reduce incidence, develop innovative approaches, and optimize existing tools in resource-constrained settings.

Health, United States, 2015

Health  United States  2015

Author : National Center for Health Statistics
Publisher : National Center for Health Statistics
Release : 2016-05-01
Category : Health & Fitness
ISBN : 1598048120

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Book Health, United States, 2015 Description/Summary: